Sorry for the lack of posts over the past few days. I just returned from the Annual Meeting of the Southern Historical Association in Charlotte, North Carolina. As always I had a wonderful time. Got to catch up with some good friends and make some new ones. I was pleasantly surprised by the number of people who stopped me to share that they read and enjoy the blog.
This week marks five years of blogging at Civil War Memory. I continue to be impressed with its growth and popularity and little did I anticipate the number of doors that would be opened for me as a result of writing this blog. As always, I thank you for reading and for adding your own thoughts to it. This site is not just a record of my own evolving thoughts on the Civil War and historical memory, but a small slice of our broader collective memory of the period.
Just a quick reminder that I will speaking this coming Wednesday evening at the Harpers Ferry Roundtable on the subject of the Crater and historical memory. The talk will take place in the annex to the Camp Hill – Wesley United Methodist Church, 601 West Washington St., Harpers Ferry, WV 25425. There is a meal at the site at 7 p.m., for which reservations should be made by calling (304) 535-2101 before Sunday, November 7. The talk is at 8 p.m.,
Update: My request has been passed on to Dr. Robertson by the Virginia Sesquicentennial Commission. Update #2: Thanks to Tom Perry for providing the following link, which includes an interview with Robertson in a Virginia newspaper: The claim is rejected by most historians, including local history expert James Robertson. “It’s blatantly false.” Robertson is a distinguished alumni history professor at Virginia Tech, an author and was even appointed by President Kennedy to be the executive director of the U.S Civil War Centennial Commission in the 60′s. “It implies men who were in slavery would want to fight for the country that enslaved them, which really is illogical.”…. “This is not to say there were not thousands of blacks in the Confederate Army, but they were performing camp chores, hospital attendants, cooks,” said Robertson. “I spent eight years of my life putting together a 950 page biography of Jackson and I can tell you he did not have any black battalions, any black units serving under him.
The debate about black Confederate soldiers that was recently stirred up by a brief reference in a 4th grade Virginia history textbook shows no sign of letting up. Editorials continue to be published and various interest groups have firmly dug in their heels. The contours of this debate beautifully reflect the fault lines that continue to divide Virginians over how to commemorate the Civil War. These fault lines will continue to flair up when emotionally-charged topics such as this one are introduced, and it is likely that our reliance on sound historical scholarship will be pushed further away. This is one of those topics where everyone is an expert.
Few people doubt that the problems with this textbook arose as a result of the over reliance on online sources, which utilize little to no quality control methods. This is something that I’ve pointed out over and over on this site. Fortunately, our state’s colleges and universities include some of the most talented historians in the country. One of them was responsible for the initial warning about this particular textbook reference. Unfortunately, there is a large segment of our population that gives little weight to their findings even though these folks may be in the best position to offer the rest of us much needed guidance. It is a sad commentary that historians such as Gary Gallagher, Peter Carmichael, Ken Noe, Joseph Glatthaar, and Robert Krick are overshadowed by the likes of Ann DeWitt, H.K. Edgerton, and G. Ashleigh Moody.
If there is one history professor whose reputation has survived intact it is Professor James I. Robertson of Virginia Tech. Professor Robertson has taught at Tech for most of his career and is responsible for one of the largest and most popular survey courses on the Civil War. He has built his scholarly reputation on books about Civil War soldiers, Stonewall Jackson, and the Stonewall Brigade. In terms of his service to the public, Prof. Robertson served as the Executive Director of the Civil War Centennial and is currently a member of the Executive Committee of Virginia’s Civil War Sesquicentennial Committee. He has taken the lead in highlighting the importance of education for this sesquicentennial commemoration. Well, this is the ultimate teaching moment. Continue reading
There is something deeply disturbing about opinion pieces such as this one by Walter Williams. You would think that someone with a scholarly bent would take one step back and ask whether he is really making a contribution to this debate. He criticizes those who have pointed out the mistakes in the 4th grade history textbook, but apparently has no response to the following: Did two battalions of black Confederates serve under “Stonewall” Jackson? If Williams has evidence then he should provide it. If not, then he should say nothing. Even James I. Robertson, who has written extensively denies the claim. Prof. Williams and others are fond of citing Charles Wesley, whose work is still widely read, but has been revised by subsequent generations of scholars. In this case, Williams references his 1919 essay, “The Employment of Negroes in the Confederate Army” [Journal of Negro History - read it here]. It’s worth reading, but there are problems with it. At one point Wesley states that the Native Guards of Louisiana served in the Confederate army, which is not true. Wesley includes references to free blacks volunteering for service in the military and instances of their impressment, but other than the mistake cited above the author does not draw any conclusions about their service in Confederate ranks as soldiers. It is true that some Confederate states accepted the service of free blacks into their respective militias, but this is a distinction that is important to maintain and Wesley is consistent here. Most of the essay traces the debate that ultimately led to the Confederate Congress’s recruitment authorization at the tail end of the war.
I wonder how Prof. Williams would feel if someone were to comment on his field of study with such disregard for real research, a narrow understanding of the relevant secondary sources, and shoddy reading practices. In the end, Prof. Williams could care less about whether or not African Americans served in the Confederate Army:
Denying the role, and thereby cheapening the memory, of the Confederacy’s slaves and freemen who fought in a failed war of independence is part of the agenda to cover up Abraham Lincoln’s unconstitutional acts to prevent Southern secession. Did states have a right to secede? At the 1787 Constitutional Convention, James Madison rejected a proposal that would allow the federal government to suppress a seceding state. He said, “A Union of the States containing such an ingredient seemed to provide for its own destruction. The use of force against a State would look more like a declaration of war than an infliction of punishment and would probably be considered by the party attacked as a dissolution of all previous compacts by which it might be bound.”
What does this have to do with whether or not African Americans fought as soldiers in Confederate ranks? What a disgrace.
Ta Nehisi-Coates just shared an email he received from one of his readers. An earlier post of his briefly referenced James McPherson’s Battle Cry of Freedom. The email serves to remind us of just why we ought to resist the urge to reduce people to a one-dimensional notion of place of origin:
“Battle Cry of Freedom” was your first mistake. It was written by a yankee who grew up with yankee soldiers trying to justify their destruction, murder, rape and pillage of the South. Why not read the ACTUAL “Official Records” compiled by the US gov’t or listen to the actual BLACKS in the slave narratives of the 1930′s? Rather than re-hashed “stories” of biased information? Question WHY federal museums are required to tell “slavery first” at the entrance door yet – as in Gettysburg museum misquote Southerners?
Southerners – no matter the “color” support each other. You yanks and yankee sympathizers can’t stand that after 150 years we all still stand agaisnt your falsehoods.
In our goal to understand one another better we should strive to break down barriers rather than unnecessarily reinforce them.