I give fairly regular quizzes in my classes. In my Civil War course I tend to give students a question that integrates their reading for the week. I am interested in both whether they’ve retained the relevant content and the extent to which they can evaluate it. Last week we concentrated on the events that led to Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in July 1862. We discussed the First and Second Confiscation Acts, the actions of Generals Butler and Hunter, pressure from Radical Republicans, the movements of fugitive slaves, the end of slavery in Washington D.C. and the territories and, of course, the flow of events on the battlefield by mid-summer 1862. It is very important to me that my students get beyond the “Great Emancipator” view of Lincoln. Students should understand the complexity of events that led to emancipation and they should be asked to evaluate Lincoln’s place in this overall process. I agree that the “Who Freed the Slaves Debate” has been played out, but that should not prevent us from continuing to reevaluate Lincoln’s importance in this important process. With that in mind I decided to ask my students to respond to the following question:
To what extent was Abraham Lincoln and an actor or a reactor in the chain of events that led to his issuance of the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in the summer of 1862? Your answer should include references to relevant individuals, events, and concepts.
Want to take the quiz? Go ahead and I will even give you a grade.
Actually, I’ve never met Harold Holzer, but his review of John Avery’s Lincoln Uber Alles: Dictatorship Comes to America, which can be found in the latest issue of North and South (November 2010) magazine is hilarious. I am not the biggest fan of reviews that go beyond a strict critique of the argument, but as far as I am concerned book published by Pelican Press are open season:
Second, the author suggests that German-born refugees from the 1848 Revolutions in Europe radicalized the Republican Party with foreign-bred Communistic ideas (such outrages as “equality throughout the nation”). their support tipped the election to Lincoln in 1860 thus ending idyllic American life as we knew and loved it, when men were men, and slaves presumably knew their place. This Gone with the Wiener Schnitzel theory would be sickening were it not so silly. Anyone who counts picture-publisher Louis Prang as a dangerous fomenter of socialism, or believes Germans really made Lincoln president (even a big German vote in Missouri beyond a minuscule 2%), has been smoking too many European cigarettes or reading too much Thomas DiLorenzo or the current governor of Virginia…. However, those who seek confirmation of the wildest of old and new conspiracy theories, including the belief that Lincoln’s presidency paved the way for nation-building, FBI stings, the London Blitz, Hiroshima, and the government raid on Waco, need look no further than Lincoln Uber Alles. Let the record show that I said “Waco,” not “wacko,” though either word will do.
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The Georgia Division Sons of Confederate Veterans is gearing up for the sesquicentennial with a series of commercials that will air on the History Channel in December. These videos will fit perfectly in between Ice Road Truckers, American Pickers, Pawn Stars and various documentaries about UFOs and Hitler’s Bunker. The first video offers an outline of what the war was about:
Men and women of the South courageously stood for liberty in the face of insurmountable odds. Is this meant for black and white southerners?
The South peacefully seceded just like the Founding Fathers did in 1776.
All the South wanted was to be left alone to govern itself.
Lincoln fought to maintain taxes and tariffs.
Men like Jackson, Forrest, and Lee fought valiantly and were often outnumbered 5 to 1. You would think that the Georgia Division would reference military leaders from their home state.
As I was going through the videos I realized that this series will make for a very interesting assignment in my Civil War Memory course, which I am teaching next trimester. I am going to split up the class into groups of two and assign a video to each group. Their assignment will be to critique the video by consulting relevant recent scholarship on their respective topics. Students will be responsible for surveying both the strengths and weakness of these videos. For instance, one of the videos on slavery goes into restrictions on free blacks in states like Indiana as well as offering a few points about the place of slavery in the North and involvement in the international slave trade. At the same time the video almost completely ignores the place of slavery in the South. The video on South Carolina’s secession makes no mention of its own Ordinance of Secession. They can write up an analysis and present it to the rest of the class or make a video response and upload it to YouTube. Thanks Georgia SCV.
This is an interview with James Loewen, who is the co-editor of The Confederate and Neo-Confederate Reader: The “Great Truth” About the “Lost Cause” published by the University Press of Mississippi. I already use most of the documents that are included in this reader, but it is nice to have such a collection available to high school and college instructors. It will definitely come in handy for my course on Civil War Memory next trimester.