AP History Workshops: Who Should Attend and Who Should Run As Quickly As Possible In The Opposite Direction

[Cross-Posted at Revise and Dissent]

Now that I’ve received my AP results from this past year I’ve started to think about how to proceed in the coming year.  In thinking about this I was reminded of a workshop that I attended for beginning AP teachers at William and Mary two years ago this week.  I admit to having been quite nervous about the workshop and my first year teaching the class.  The AP curriculum is very popular at my school, and while no one made the point explicit, the school and the parents expect results. 

I was placed in a section with around 25 teachers and the instructor we were told was a seasoned AP History teacher.  Within a few hours of the opening session I literally thought that someone was filming me for one of those spoof shows on television.  The range of abilities was all over the board.  Apart from a few competent individuals there were people without any type of history degree, some without even a basic background in US History, and even first-year teachers who had to start their careers by teaching multiple AP sections.  It was the plight of the public school system in my face.  The first few hours were spent covering the basic time-line in US History followed by the basics of primary source analysis.  I was confused, depressed, and angry all at the same time.  During lunch I met two teachers in my group who were as upset as me.  Both were recent UVA graduates from the Currie School of Education and the History Department and were currently working in public schools.  They had taken courses with such notable historians as Ed Ayers and Michael Holt and they were both extremely knowledgeable and passionate about the subject and teaching. 

At the end of the day we approached one of the organizers to see about switching into the intermediate section.  She looked at us as if we were crazy and just a bit arrogant in thinking that first-year AP teachers could handle the intermediate section.  At one point we threatened that we would leave the program and complain to her superiors if we were not allowed to switch; of course, she finally relented.  Relieved that the rest of the conference would be more interesting we walked back to the hotel and later met for dinner to joke about what we had experienced that day. 

The intermediate group was not much better, although we talked much more about the analysis of documents and the structure of the course.  I remember the reaction of the class after analyzing two WPA slave interviews only to learn that the two interviewees were one and the same person.  One of the interviewers was black and the other white so we had to explain why the interviewee would respond differently based on race.   It was a reflection of how unsophisticated most of the teachers in the room were.  This is not meant as a condescending remark as I hope to make a point about the usefulness of these workshops.  Most of the people who attend these workshops have little background in serious historical study.  They may know a great deal about what happened in the past but their ability to teach students how to engage in an analytical discussion and prepare an analytical essay is lacking.  This brings me back to my two new friends.  As I mentioned they had both graduated with degrees in history from UVA and their instructors had taught them well in terms of how to think and write about the past.  In short, given the AP History curriculum there was simply very little for the instructors to teach us. 

I was surprised by just how little the AP History curriculum deviated from the way I teach my regular US survey courses.  My students routinely write short essays in which they must make use of primary sources in structuring their thesis statement.  They are forced to think critically about every paragraph and every sentence in that paragraph.  This dovetails easily with the goal of the DBQ essay.  And any serious history teacher who focuses on critical analysis already asks questions that would fall easily into the category of the Free-Response Essay

I now see the workshop as a clear sign of how woefully unprepared many history teachers are for the classroom.  In this I agree wholeheartedly with David McCullough who has been outspoken of the need to prepare history teachers with a solid grounding in historical understanding. 

We have to do a far better job
of teaching our teachers. We have too many teachers who are graduating with
degrees in education. They go to schools of education or they major in
education, and they graduate knowing something called education, but they don’t
know a subject. They’re assigned to teach botany or English literature or
history, and of course they can’t perform as they should. Knowing a subject is
important because you want to know what you’re talking about when you’re
teaching. But beyond that, you can’t love what you don’t know. And the great
teachers – the teachers who influence you, who change your lives – almost
always, I’m sure, are the teachers that love what they are teaching. It is that
wonderful teacher who says “Come over here and look in this microscope, you’re
really going to get a kick out of this.

So, who should attend the AP workshop?  Remember that AP Central is a business and like any business they need your money to survive.  The number of workshops offered for AP teachers reminds me of the pressure and plethora of offering that are designed to prepare our students and children for the SAT and other standardized tests.  The workshops (and I venture to say that even those courses advertised as intermediate) are really meant for those people who have little background in the critical analysis of history – background that you will receive from any competent history department at the undergraduate level.  For those of you who satisfy this condition my suggestion is to enjoy the last few weeks of summer, and if you are feeling guilty go out and buy a serious historical study that could be introduced in some way in your class. 


AP History Results Just In

[Cross-Posted at Revise and Dissent]

Today I had a chance to review the scores of my students who took the AP US History exam back in May.  They did extremely well, which is no surprise given that students must apply to take this course where I work.  This means that they are highly motivated and hard workers.  This is my second year teaching the course.  The biggest change that I made this past year was with the textbook.  Last year I used the very popular American Pageant by David Kennedy et. al, while this year I switched to Give Me Liberty by Eric Foner.  While the former text is popular the narrative is quite dry and the multiple authors leaves the reader with no unifying theme.  Not only is the narrative dry, but littered throughout are poor analogies and metaphors; students enjoy pointing these out in class.  As the sole author, Eric Foner is able to weave a coherent story around the question of how the concept of freedom has been understood and the conditions in which it has expanded and contracted throughout American history.  His is a progressive story, but realistic throughout.  While Foner does provide AP students with the information needed for the exam, he goes beyond this traditional account to introduce students to a host of lesser- known events and individuals that are a staple of the new cultural and social histories. This is clearly history from the bottom-up.  Most of my students enjoyed reading Foner and I will stick with it at least for the near future.  And finally, despite the warnings from David Horowitz it looks like my students have not turned into rabid communists or represent a threat to national security. 

Back to the scores.  (Click here if you are not familar with the structure of the exam.)The AP exam is graded on a 1 to 5 scale, 1 being the lowest and 5 the highest.  The national average is just below a 3, which is obviously pathetic.  Out of 21 students there were nine 5’s, six 4’s, four, 3’s, and two 2’s.  The class average was 4.048.  Obviously I am very pleased with the scores.

That said, I am still a bit ambivalent about the course.  While I approve of the emphasis on the analysis of primary documents and analytical writing I have trouble with the amount of information needed for the exam.  It is very difficult to slow down in this course and focus on specific questions for any length of time.  I also find it difficult to introduce any type of serious research project that involves the necessary time to collect and analyze sources.  I would much rather teach an honors-type course where we could read a wider range of primary and secondary sources and focus on specific events in more detail.  Do they really need to know the details of the Rush-Bagot Treaty? 

The other part that I find troubling is the tendency of students to see the year in terms of one test.  I want my students to see their progress in broader terms as taking place over the course of the year rather than as hinging on one day.  Studying history is much bigger than preparation for a test.  Of course the appreciation of the serious study of history and taking a test are not mutually exclusive, but our societal obsession with tests and getting into the right college is difficult to compete with.  Just as important is the hope that the student’s college of choice will offer credit for a score of 4 or 5.  Over the last few years schools have reverted to accepting only 5’s for college credit.  All of this makes it difficult to impress upon students the intrinsic value of the course.  More importantly, in a recent study conducted by two professors out of Harvard and the University of Virginia suggests that a high score on the AP Science tests does not predict success in college science courses.  Whether this is true for history has yet to be analyzed. 

I rarely mention the AP test during the school year.  My goal, as in all my other classes, is to teach my students to think critically about the past and guide them as much as possible through the difficult questions.  Hopefully they come out the other end with a strong grasp of both the content of American history and the analytical skills necessary to better interpret it.  And if they do well on the AP test, well, that is icing on the cake.


The Civil War at the 2007 AHA

It’s good to be home after a week in Germany.  We enjoyed temperatures in the low 80’s so you can imagine how miserable I was upon stepping out of Dulles International and into the mid 90’s. 

Today I received the confirmation for my roundtable session at the January 2007 meeting of the American Historical Association in Atlanta.  I took part in last year’s meeting in Philadelphia and had a great time, although the offerings in the areas of the Civil War and Southern history are limited.  This will be my first roundtable format and I am really looking forward to it given my complaints about the traditional panel format.  All too often the panel format has turned out to be a disappointment.  You can’t count on an audience of sufficient size showing up and often the question and answer period fails to address the salient issues contained in the papers.  I like the idea of making papers available on-line before the start of a conference as this at least makes it more likely that attendees will take the time to read them before showing up for the session and thus making for a more fruitful exchange of ideas.

The panel that I will be taking part in is titled: "Soldiers, Citizens, and Sources: The Uses of Civil War Soldiers in Writing U.S. History."  All of the participants contributed an essay to the forthcoming book, The View From the Ground: The Experiences of Civil War Soldiers which is now set for release in December.  I was under the impression that it would be out in September, but I guess there were some delays.  Anyway, there are five participants and each of us will share a few remarks about our specific contribution to the volume and our approach to interpreting Civil War soldiers.  It’s a talented group of historians and the format will hopefully generate an interesting exchange with the audience.  I like the idea of not having to worry about presenting a long and boring paper that only a few in the audience will expend the energy to follow.  Here are the participants:

Aaron Sheehan-Dean (editor of the book and chair of the session)
Charles E. Brooks
Kent T Dollar
Kevin M. Levin
Chandra Miller Manning
Jason K. Phillips

The session is scheduled for Saturday, January 6: 2:30-4:49 p.m. 


H-Civil War: Scholarly Resource or Just Another Message Board?

I´ve been meaning to comment on this for some time, but wanted to see how long it would take the editor to jump in and cut-off the message thread which started with the excellent review of John Coski´s study of the Confederate flag.  While late is better than never, clearly this discussion (if you can even call it a discussion) went on much too long.  The review should have led to a discussion of the merits of Coski´s interpretation and/or the reviewer´s contribution.  Instead we got the all-too-common nonsense that failed to go beyond one´s own opinion as to the proper display of the flag or the author´s own historical interpretation that indicated no understanding of the secondary literature.  Very few of the messages (I stopped reading after 10) contained anything which indicated that the author had actually read the book.  The message thread reads like any of the current crappy message boards that you can waste your time reading. 

H-Net was created as a forum for scholars to share research projects, ask questions, and engage in serious dialog that contains analysis rather than an airing of one´s opinion.  My guess is that most of the other H-Net forums do not suffer from this problem.  However, in the case of the Civil War everyone is an expert.  I am tired of hearing from people who wish to share their views of whether Sherman´s and Sheridan´s marches were immoral or whether they believe the Confederate flag is a racist symbol.  This has little to do with serious research.  And as I just mentioned there are plenty of forums that will eagerly embrace this shallowness. 

I call on the editors of this particular forum to exercise tighter control over the kinds of messages that can be posted to the listserv.  If individual parties continue to abuse the forum then they should be temporarily suspended or permanently banned.  H-Net is a valuable resource, but you know that something is wrong when you begin to think of their emails as SPAM. 


Confronting The Past

I am still in Germany.  Tonight the family went out to dinner while I decided to stay back and relax a bit.  It´s been quite hectic between the funeral and other assorted events.  Today we drove to Köln (that´s Cologne for us Americans) to see the famous cathedral.  It was quite impressive although the downtown area was packed with tourists for a wild celebration that will take place tonight and involve an elaborate fireworks display along the Rhine.  I am staying in a beautiful home in Köningswinter which is opposite Bonn and right along the river.  My wife and I took a scenic run along the Rhine today, which is quite low at the moment owing to the little rain and heat over the past few weeks.  As I mentioned briefly the other day, the home we are staying in sits on what was an old vineyard on a terraced hill just over the river.  The house is modern with glass windows running along the entire river side.  There is a terrace for every room and the views are simply magnificent.  Unfortunately, it´s been a sad week owing the the death of my sister-in-law´s husband – a wonderful man who passed away much too early. 

The other day my wife and I visited the Museum of Contemporary History in Bonn.  I was able to buy a guide in English as the displays were only in German.  As the name of the museum suggests, the focus of the exhibits is on the postwar period up to and through the fall of the Berlin Wall.  What I was most impressed with was the way in which the exhibit dealt with the darker chapters of the war, including the Holocaust and the suppression of political opposition under the Nazis.  One of the first exhibits that the visitor sees is a large black cube, which falls under the heading “The Ever-Present Past.´´  Here is a description from my guide:

Our eye is drawn to the massive cube of black steel in the centre of the room.  This design component is a motif that will recur in various forms in the exhibition.  It stands in the middle of the way, symbolizing the confrontation with the past resonating through German history up to the present day.  The interior is a memorial room for the victims of Nazi despotism.  The names of countless victims are projected onto screens.  A photo sequence traces the development of the brutal persecution of all Jewish citizens: from boycotts and ostracism to the murder of millions in the death camps. 

The phrase “confrontation with the past´´ and the placement of the exhibit in a way that is unavoidable strikes me as significant and an interesting point of contrast with our own tendency until relatively recently to ignore issues such as slavery in our own museum exhibits.  No doubt I need to learn more, but I am impressed with the short amount of time it took Germany to begin to seriously deal with its past following the Second World War. 

In the case of the Holocaust it may have been easier since there were so few Jews who survived the death camps.  In contrast to the period following the Civil War, most Americans harbored strong racist views and in the South the goal was not to reconcile itself with an immoral past, but to maintain a racial hierarchy.  Perhaps more importantly, the influence of the Allied Powers in forcing Germans to confront the past made a significant difference.  The museum focused a great deal on the various ways the occupying military forces controlled the newspapers, schools, and legislation.  Residents were forced to watch movies taken from the death camps.  In other words, Germans did not simply become more democratic, they were shown and to a certain extent forced. This is not to minimiz the committment of Germans to a new democratic future, but to highlight the role of an important external influence that was determined to achieve a certain result.  I venture to guess that a solid majority of Germans today believe that it is their responsibility to confront their past in order to insure that it does not happen again.  I believe that this is a healthy tendency.  Americans are not very good about confronting their past and I suspect that it has much to do with a belief in American exceptionalism.  In the case of slavery it is much easier to downplay its horror or to situate it in a progressive story that minimizes its place within the broader narrative. 

I just finished talking to a family member about these issues and she mentioned a very interesting project that is financed privately.  A great deal of research has been done to locate those homes in Bonn where Jews lived before being forced to relocate.  If it is shown that families were removed the residents of that particular street can purchase a “Remembrance Stone´´ which is placed in front of the home and indicates the names of the family members.  I was surprised to learn that this project has proven to be incredibly successful. 

1 comment

Guest Post

One of this blog’s readers recently emailed some thoughts about the conference that Mark Grimsley is organizing at Ohio State.  Given that I am in the middle of a blog hiatus I thought that it would make for an excellent guest post.  The author agreed and re-worked the material for that purpose.  From the author: “I should say that this is more of a thought piece, not really intended as an airtight argument so much as a way of imagining a way that we could fit the history of the United States into a tidy paradigm of decolonization and postcolonialism.”  Comments are welcome and the author will respond.

To start with, let me say that the conference Mark Grimsley is organizing on the war for the South from 1865-1965 is a wonderful and refreshing change.  One of the major problems with history in general is how a war serves as a break in periodization.  The historian, of course, has to limit the scope of inquiry.  A war provides a clearly delineated start and finish. The convenience of this approach is immediately obvious: it makes intuitive sense.  Unfortunately, the start and the finish also limit the range of causes and effects that can be observed.  The periodization provides a discursive break that in some instances overemphasizes the impact and changes wrought by war.  In many instances a war only magnifies or accelerates trends already present.  Rather than looking at what comes before a war and what results from the war, it may be beneficial to look at a sort of trans-war period.  All this of course is to say: the way the question is asked dictates how it is answered.  By raising a different question, Professor Grimsely is in effect giving us new and different answers.

Reading Professor Grimsley’s posts and articles relating to the conference, I noticed that the conference will look at the South after the Civil War as being in an extended insurgency or protracted war of decolonization.  What I present here are some thoughts on the United States fitting within a paradigm of decolonization.  While it is clear that the conference will be examining this issue from a military perspective, focusing more on the technical aspects of insurgency or low-level conflict, my analysis here is more along socio-political lines.  Finally, before I begin, let me define the terms I will be using.  I use “colonialism” to refer to direct political control of a territory (geographically separate) by another state, with the economic relationship strongly weighted to the benefit of the metropole. “Postcolonialism” refers to any point after direct political control ends but before autonomy is achieved.  I use “neocolonialism” to mean economic control of the territory, but not necessarily overt political control (though indirect control exercised through various political factions may; Colonialism and neocolonialism should be seen as gradients of a continuum, stretching from complete political control to autonomy.

The Civil War can be seen as the last in a series of the wars of the decolonization of the United States (this does imply that Reconstruction and Civil Rights are not a war of decolonization, which I will get to shortly). The first war of decolonization would be the French-Indian War, which was also the last in the series of Colonial Wars.  The French-Indian War eliminated the French as a serious threat to the British in North America. The level of involvement by the colonies was unprecedented.  More importantly, the influx of British troops fostered a sense of distinction and difference between the colonists and the metropolitan British (there is debate on this, but I find Fred Anderson’s work convincing in this regard). Combined with the series of imperial crises regarding taxation and defining the meaning of “colony” in the aftermath of the French-Indian War led to the American Revolution.  The American Revolution saw the creation of a national identity, and one is tempted to say, a national ideology (this is not to deny prior American anxieties of provincialism).  This ideology was one rooted in a firm belief in the benefits of capitalism and trade with a commitment to republican governance (though who was received a voice under republicanism was not clear).

Also worth noting at this point is how the American Revolution was extremely different from nearly every other war of decolonization.  First, British rule in America had not depended upon a single minority group (other than whites).  Typical of a colonial system is metropolitan rule through a class of subalterns, usually a traditionally marginalized minority.  Fearful of their status within the colony, they prove pliant and often willing collaborationists.  Before, during, and after the struggles for decolonization this minority group serves as a stand-in for the distant metropolitan authorities, receiving the approbation and ire of oppresses majority.  In the American colonies there was no single minority group that filled this role, and indeed there was no foreign ruling class.  The flexibility and upward mobility of capitalism firmly prevented the establishment of a hereditary ruling class.  The elite in America was not institutionalized, except broadly along the lines of race.  Second, there was no widespread critique of European liberalism, such as that presented by Marxism.  While Whigs and Tories might debate the path to achieve the most beneficial enactment of this, the overall goal was not questioned.

After the Revolution, America entered a protracted period of neocolonialism. The domestic political struggles, and foreign affairs centered on the best way to establish and ensure economic and political independence from European powers.  The Embargo Act, Quasi-War, and the War of 1812 can all be seen as struggles to complete the decolonization of America.  An indication of how deep these fears went is the persistent belief that all Indian disturbances were the result of British intrigue (not to mention the whole Citizen Genet affair and Aaron Burr’s intrigues along the Mississippi).  The War of 1812 seemed ended the threat of British reoccupation, but it still did not end the threat of neocolonialism.

Following the War of 1812, the domestic politics of the United States turned more towards economic expansion and establishing economic independence.  The South and the North did not disagree so much on the need for economic independence, but rather on the best way to achieve that economic independence.  Debates centered on slavery, and whether or not slave labor was a better path to development then free labor.  Because the two systems dictated differing economic policies on a national scale, they could not exist in the same country.  Yet the idea of what America should be was not so much in question as was the best way to get there (the Confederate Constitution was not radically different from the United States Constitution).  The rhetorical war escalates to insurgency in Bleeding Kansas then spreads to full-scale military conflict with the Civil

Looking at the South as postcolonial also helps explain why so many ardent defenders of the Old South became proponents of the New South.  The struggle of the South to modernize was not radically changed by the Civil War.  The white elite wanted to modernize and throw of the chains of
economic dependence (notwithstanding cotton is king).  The new work by Genovese, O’Brien, and Carmichael pretty definitively shows that many in the South were looking to create a capitalist society that was not economically dependent on exports.  The Civil War accelerated these trends but did not change the trajectory of the South.  The goals of these developers were the same after the war as they were before the war.  Why reconciliation was so easy was because the only underlying fissure between the North and the South was the labor system used to attempt decolonization (and then the economic choices suggested by the different labor systems).  That is, the project of the North and the South (decolonization) was the same, just that the means to the end were different.  Because there was no major ideological difference about the ends of the American project, there was no impetus for a cycle of reprisal violence among whites.  When the Civil War answered the question of means, it also sparked a war of decolonization by the African-American community.

What is crucial to note, is that for the most part, from Reconstruction through the Civil Rights movement, African-Americans did not want to overthrow the existing order.  Rather, they simply wanted to claim a place within it.  During Reconstruction, for the first time, African-Americans on a large scale were able to lay claim to being “American.”  White violence directed at blacks in America, before and after the Civil War, was aimed at ensuring their continued exclusion from the definition of “American.” Slavery was one form of this instutionalized violence.  The end of slavery did not end the violence, just changed the shape it took.

A war of decolonization aims to end colonial rule.  The colony aims to retrieve its ability to make political and economic choices.  Certainly this is what African-Americans wanted, but they also wanted to compel white Americans to recognize that blacks were African-Americans too.  The white counter-insurgents did not necessarily need to apply force in any consistent manner, but only needed to demonstrate that blacks were not considered American.  Whereas most struggles of decolonization aim to exclude the metropole (politically, culturally, and economically), the struggle of African-Americans was one of incorporation.