A Crowdsourcing Project About Confederate Monuments and Civil War Memory: From #NOLA to #Cville
The horrific murders committed by Dylann Roof of nine churchgoers in Charleston, South Carolina in 2015 catapulted the debate about Confederate iconography onto the national stage. That debate has expanded to discussions in communities throughout the country about the place of Confederate monuments on public spaces. No two cities have been more directly impacted by these discussions than New Orleans, Louisiana, which removed four monuments in April and May 2017 and in Charlottesville, Virginia, where a young woman was murdered by white nationalists defending the Robert E. Lee monument on August 12, 2017.
The goal of #CivilWarMemorySyllabus is to assist teachers and students on the high school and college levels as well as others interested in better understanding the ongoing debate surrounding the meaning of Confederate monuments and the American Civil War. Most of the sources listed below were published in response to the debates and demonstrations that took place in New Orleans and Charlottesville.
- Yoni Applebaum, “Take the Confederate Statues Down,” 13 August 2017, The Atlantic.
- Felicia Bevel, “White Supremacy is a Global Export of the Confederate South, 32 May 2017, Quartz.
- Erin Blakemore, “How the Confederacy is Etched into American Roads,” 29 August 2017, The Atlantic.
- David W. Blight, “Clementa Pinckney, A Martyr of Reconciliation,” 22 June 2015, The Atlantic.
- David W. Blight, “‘The Civil War Lies on Us Like a Sleeping Dragon’: America’s Deadly Divide and Why It Has Returned,” 20 August 2017, The Guardian.
- W. Fitzhugh Brundage, “I’ve Studied the History of Confederate Memorials. Here is What To Do About Them,” 18 August 2017, Vox.
- Frank Bruni, “Mitch Landrieu Reminds Us that Eloquence Still Exists,” 23 May 2017, The New York Times.
- Ta-Nehisi Coates, “Why Do So Few Blacks Study the Civil War?” 2012, The Atlantic.
- Karen Cox, “Why Confederate Monuments Must Fall,” 15 August 2017, The New York Times.
- Karen Cox, “The Whole Point of Confederate Monuments is to Celebrate White Supremacy,” 16 August 2017, The Washington Post.
- Jane Dailey, “The Confederate General Who Was Erased,” 21 August 2017, HuffPost.
- Eric Foner, “The Making and the Breaking of the Legend of Robert E. Lee,” 28 August 2017, The New York Times.
- Eric Foner, “Confederate Statues and Our History,” 20 August 2017, The New York Times.
- Matt Ford, “The Statues of Unliberty,” 14 August 2017, The Atlantic.
- Matt Ford, “What Trump’s Generation Learned about the Civil War,” 28 August 2017, The Atlantic.
- Cara Giamo, “Those Mass-Produced Civil War Statues Were Meant to Stand Forever,” 25 August 2017, Atlas Obscura.
- Scott Hancock, “In Gettysburg the Confederacy Won,” 24 August 2017, City Lab.
- Tony Horwitz, “After Charlottesville, New Shades of Gray in a Changing South,” 25 August 2017 The Wall Street Journal.
- Caroline Janney, “Why We Need Confederate Monuments,” 27 July 2017, The Washington Post.
- Kevin M. Levin, “The Pernicious Myth of the ‘Loyal Slave’ Lives on in Confederate Memorials,” 17 August 2017, Smithsonian Magazine.
- James Loewen, “Why Do People Believe Myths About the Confederacy? Because Our Textbooks and Monuments are Wrong,” 1 July 2015, The Washington Post.
- James Loewen, “Why Was There a Civil War?” 3 May 2015, The Washington Post.
- James Marten, “Thoughts on Confederate Monuments (My Own and Others),” 23 August 2017, Historians@Work.
- John Meacham, “Why Lee Should Go and Washington Should Stay,” 21 August 2017, The New York Times.
- Lisa Richardson, “I’m a Black Daughter of the Confederacy and This is What We Should Deal with All Those General Lees.” 27 August 2017, Los Angeles Times.
- Jason M. Ward, “The Myth of Southern Blood,” 21 August 2017, The Washington Post.
Removal of the Robert E. Lee Monument in New Orleans
OP-EDs, EDITORIALS (NEW ORLEANS)
- David W. Blight, “The Battle For Memorial Day in New Orleans,” 31 May 2017, The Atlantic.
- Jelani Cobb, “The Battle Over Confederate Monuments in New Orleans,” 12 May 2017, The New Yorker.
- Brentin Mock, “How Robert E. Lee Got Knocked Off His Pedestal,” 31 May 2017, The Atlantic (City Lab).
- Kevin M. Levin, “Robert E. Lee Topples From His Pedestal,” 19 May 2017, The Atlantic.
- Wynton Marsalis, “Why New Orleans Should Take Down Robert E. Lee’s Statue,” 17 May 2017, The Times-Picayune.
- Collier Meyerson, “Inside the Fight to Take Down the Confederate Monuments in New Orleans,” 19 June 2017, The Nation.
- Mary Niall Mitchell, “A Tale of Two Cities: New Orleans and the Fight Over Confederate Monuments,” 11 May 2017, History.
- Janell Ross, “‘They Were Not Patriots’: New Orleans Removes Monument to Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee,” 19 May 2017, The Washington Post.
- Aviva Shen, “The History Behind New Orleans’ Long Fight To Remove Its Confederate Monuments,” 13 March 2017, Think Progress.
- Yohuru Williams, “Bye Bye Beauregard: Putting the Confederate Past Where it Belongs,” 23 May 2017, The Progressive.
- Podcast: “An Absolute Massacre: The 1866 Riot at the Mechanics’ Institute,” New Orleans Public Radio (2016).
- Podcast: “Oscar Dunn and the New Orleans Monument that Never Happened,” New Orleans Public Radio (2017).
NEW ORLEANS: LOCAL VOICES
- Edward Alexander, “Thought You Were God, Huh? Letter to Robert E. Lee,” uploaded to YouTube, 5 June 2017.
- Lolis Eric Elie, “Still Live, With Voices,” 20 August 2015, Oxford American.
- Mitch Landrieu Address at Liberty Place Monument, April 24, 2017, YouTube.
- Mitch Landrieu Speech on the Removal of Confederate Monuments in New Orleans,” 18 May 2015, The Atlantic.
- David S. Rutledge, Where We Know: New Orleans As Home (2010).
- Debate Between Michael “Quess” Moore and Richard Marksbury about Confederate Monuments, uploaded to YouTube, 9 June 2017.
- “The Struggle to Remove White Supremacist Monuments in New Orleans: Community Forum #2,” Uploaded to YouTube, 13 October 2015.
- “The Struggle to Remove White Supremacist Monuments in New Orleans: Community Forum #3,” Uploaded to YouTube, 12 October 2015.
Protest in Front of the Robert E. Lee Monument in Charlottesville, Virginia
OP-EDS/ESSAYS (CHARLOTTESVILLE [BEFORE AUGUST 12, 2017])
- Sophie Abramowitz, Eva Latterner, and Gillet Rosenblith, “Tools of Displacement,” 23 June 2017, Slate.
- Jamelle Bouie, “Why Richard Spencer Matters,” 23 May 2017, Slate. (Charlottesville, Va).
- Jackey Forten, “The Statue at the Center of Charlottesville’s Storm,” 13 August 2017, New York Times.
- Megan Garber, “Why Charlottesville,” 12 August 2017, The Atlantic.
- Eileen Johnson, “Moments of Rupture: Confederate Monuments and a Southern Town’s Search for its Identity,” 12 April 2017, The Politic. (Charlottesville, Va).
- “City of Charlottesville Blue Ribbon Commission on Race, Memorials and Public Spaces,” Report to City Council, 19 December 2016.
- Jalane Schmidt, “Excuse Me, America Your House is On Fire: Lessons From Charlottesville on the KKK and ‘Alt-Right,'” 27 June 2017, Resist Here.
- Michael Signer, “I’m A Progressive Mayor. Here’s Why I Voted No On Removing My City’s Monument,” 24 May 2017, The Washington Post.
- Brendan Wolfe, “History Writ Aright,” [History of the Lee Monument], 05 July 2017, personal blog.
OP-EDS/ESSAYS (CHARLOTTESVILLE [AFTER AUGUST 12, 2017])
- Kevin M. Levin, “Why I Changed My Mind About Confederate Monuments,” 19 August 2017, The Atlantic.
- Keri Leigh Merritt, “Charlottesville and the Confederate Legacy,” 17 August 2017, Moyers & Co.
- Blain Roberts and Ethan J. Kytle, “Unsure about Confederate Statues? Ask Yourself If You Support White Supremacy,” 16 August 2017, Fresno Bee.
- Nina Silber, “Worshiping the Confederacy is About White Supremacy-Even the Nazis Thought So,” 17 August 2017, The Washington Post.
- Manisha Sinha, “What Those Monuments Stand For,” 18 August 2017 New York Daily News
- Manisha Sinha, “Heather Heyer is Part of a Long Tradition of White Anti-Racism Activists,” 16 August 2017, The Washington Post.
- Chad Williams, “Donald Trump: the Neo-Confederate President,” 17 August 2017, Cassius.
Postcard of Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia
- Community Forum on Monument Avenue, Monument Avenue Commission, Uploaded to YouTube on August 13, 2017.
- Bob Deans, “Richmond Straddles a Grand Dilemma Called Monument Avenue,” 11 June 2017, Richmond Times-Dispatch.
- Heather B. Doyle, “‘Cathedral of the Confederacy’ Reckons With Its History and Charts Future,” 19 June 2017, Episcopal News Service.
- Garrett Epps, “The True History of the South Is Not Being Erased,” 11 June 2017, The Atlantic.
- Garrett Epps, “The Motionless Ghosts That Haunt the South,” 14 May 2017, The Atlantic.
- Kevin M. Levin, “What Richmond Has Gotten Right About Its Confederate History,” 18 May 2017, Smithsonian Magazine.
- Howard Manly, “Uncovering the Buried Truth in Richmond: Former Confederate Capital Tries to Memorialize Its Shameful History of Slavery,” Trotter Review (2016).
- Community Forum: “The Unmasking: Race and Reality in Richmond, Part 2,” Uploaded to YouTube on 17 January 2017.
- Mayor Levar M. Stoney’s statement on Confederate monuments in Richmond, June 22, 2017.
- Robert Zullo, “As Confederate Monuments Come Down Elsewhere, Can Richmond ‘Offer Something Else,'” 21 May 2017, Richmond Times-Dispatch.
ACROSS THE COUNTRY
- Julie Bosman, “Few in St. Louis Knew Confederate Memorial Existed. Now, Many Want It Gone,” 26 May 2017, The New York Times.
- Jelani Cobb, “Terrorism in Charleston,” 29 June 2015, The New Yorker.
- Karen Cox, “The End of a Confederate Legacy: Vanderbilt’s Memorial Hall,” 23 August 2016, HuffPost.
- Jane Dailey, “Baltimore’s Confederate Monument Was Never About ‘History and Culture,” 17 August 2017, HuffPost.
- Alex Heuer, “Pro & Con: Should a Confederate Monument in Forest Park Be Removed?,” 26 May 2017, St. Louis Public Radio.
- Anne Marshall, “Historian on ‘Confederate Kentucky’: Time to Remove the Statutes,” 16 August 2017, Lexington Herald-Leader.
- Eli Pousson, “What Baltimore Can Teach Us About the Future of Public Monuments,” 23 August 2017, The Architects Newspaper.
OP-EDS AND EDITORIALS ON THE CONFEDERATE FLAG
- Yoni Applebaum, “Why Is the Flag Still There?,” 21 June 2015, The Atlantic.
- Ta-Nehisi Coates, “Take Down the Confederate Flag–Now,” 18 June 2015, The Atlantic.
- Libby Nelson, “The Confederate Flag Symbolizes White Supremacy –and it Always Has,” 20 June 2015, Vox.
- Ethan Kytle and Blain Roberts, “Take Down the Confederate Flag, but Not the Monuments,” 25 June 2015, The Atlantic.
- James F. Brooks, “Monumental Moments,” 5 September 2017, NCPH:Historians@Work.
- Chris Gehrz, “How Historians Can Teach From Memorials,” 28 August 2017, The Pietist Schoolman.
- Megan Kate Nelson, “Transforming White Supremacist Memorials: Two Proposals,” 15 August 2017, Historista.
- Megan Kate Nelson, “Transforming White Supremacist Memorials, Part 2: Recent Acts of Creative Protest,” 31 August 2017, Historista.
LECTURES AND PANEL DISCUSSIONS
- Manisha Sinha, David Blight, Nina Silber, and W. Fitzhugh Brundage, “Recasting the Confederacy: Monuments and Civil War Memory,” University of Connecticut, 11 November 2017, YouTube.
- Thomas Brown, “Overview of Civil War Monuments,” American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- Christy Coleman, “Controversy Over Civil War Monuments and Memorials,” American Civil War Museum,” 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- Troy Harman, “Monuments at Gettysburg: Context and Beyond,” Gettysburg National Military Park, Winter 2015, YouTube.
- John Hennessy, “Freedom, the Civil War and its Complicated Legacy,” Gettysburg National Military Park, Spring 2016, YouTube.
- Ervin Jordan, “Controversy Over Robert E. Lee Monuments,” American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- James Loewen, “Confederate Monuments and Memorials,” American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- Cynthia Mills, “Civil War Monuments,” Smithsonian Institution, 19 July 2012, YouTube.
- Timothy Sedore, “Context of Civil War Monuments,” American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- Panel Discussion: “Confederate Flag, Slavery, and Modern Racism,” National Cathedral, Washington, D.C., 26 October 2016, C-SPAN.
- Panel Discussion: “Origins of the Lost Cause,” Civil War Institute at Gettysburg College, 18 June 2016, C-SPAN.
- Panel Discussion on New Orleans and Confederate Monuments, Al Jazeera, 24 May 2017, YouTube.
- Panel Discussion on Civil War Monuments, American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- Panel Discussion: “Charleston and its Aftermath: History, Symbols, Policy,” Yale University, 21 September 2015. YouTube.
- Panel Discussion: “The American Civil War: Legacies For Our Own Time,” Yale University, 29 March 2012.
PUBLIC FORUMS ON CONFEDERATE MONUMENTS
- Georgetown, Texas, October 29, 2017 [Part 2], YouTube.
- Caddo Parrish, Louisiana, October 17, 2017 [Part 1, Part 2, Part 3], YouTube.
- St. Augustine, Florida, August 2017, YouTube.
- Richmond, Virginia, August 2017, YouTube.
- Louisville, Kentucky, June 2017, YouTube.
- ABC News, “Erasing History?: The Debate Over Confederate Monuments,” Uploaded to YouTube on 20 August 2017.
- ACLU, “When Heritage Equals Hate: The Truth About the Confederacy in the United States,” Uploaded to YouTube on 24 August 2017.
- Civil War Trust, “The Civil War in Four Minutes: Remembering the War,” Uploaded to YouTube on 20 August 2013.
- Civil War Trust, “The Civil War in Four Minutes: Monuments,” Uploaded to YouTube on 7 June 2013.
- Florida Humanities, “Florida in the Civil War: Monuments and Memories,” Uploaded to YouTube on 7 November 2016.
- Gilder-Lehrman, “Gary Gallagher on the ‘Lost Cause,'” Uploaded to YouTube on 17 April 2009.
- History, “The History of Confederate Monuments in the U.S.” Uploaded to Youtube on 26 August 2017.
- Matter of Fact, Interview with Garrett Epps about Confederate Monuments in Richmond, Uploaded to YouTube on 3 June 2017.
- The National, “Confederate Monuments Removed and Covered Up Overnight Across U.S.” (Interview), Uploaded to YouTube on 16 August 2017.
- PBS NewsHour, “Why America is Wrestling With Confederate Monuments,” Uploaded to YouTube on 25 August 2017.
- Prager University, “Was the Civil War About Slavery,” Uploaded to YouTube on 10 August 2015.
- Vice News, “A Kentucky Mayor Has Fought For Years To Remove Confederate Statues,” Uploaded to YouTube on 24 August 2017.
- Vice News, “Memorializing the Confederacy,” Uploaded to YouTube on 23 August 2017.
- Vox, “Timeline of Confederate Monuments,” Uploaded to YouTube on 23 September 2017.
- Alexander Stephens, “Corner stone” Speech, March 21, 1861
- Constitution of the Confederate States
- Declaration of Causes of Seceded States
- Frederick Douglass, Speech at Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, 30 May 1871.
- W.E.B. DuBois, “The Perfect Vacation,” The Crisis (1931).
- W.E.B. DuBois, “Robert E. Lee,” (1928).
- James Loewen and Edward H. Sebesta, The Confederate and Neo-Confederate Reader: The “Great Truth” about the “Lost Cause” (2010).
- George Washington Cable, The Negro Question (1903).
- Emily Hazen Reed, The Life of A.P. Dostie; Or, the Conflict of New Orleans (1868).
- “The Decision to Secede and Establish the Confederacy: A Selection of Primary Sources,” (American Historical Association).
TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION
Dedication of Confederate Monument at Arlington National Cemetery, 1914
MONUMENT DEDICATION ADDRESSES
- Dedication of the Confederate Monument, at Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans, Friday, 10 April 1874.
- Ceremonies in Augusta, Georgia: laying the corner stone of the Confederate monument and Dedication Address, 31 October 1878.
- South Carolina Monument Association/Dedication of Monument to Confederate Dead, 13 May 1879.
- Robert Edward Lee. An address delivered at the dedication of the monument to General Robert Edward Lee at Richmond, Virginia, 29 May 1890.
- Report of proceedings incidental to the erection and dedication of the Confederate monument, Oakwood Cemetery, Chicago, 1 June 1895.
- Report of proceedings incidental to the erection and dedication of the Confederate monument in Oakwood Cemetery, Chicago, Ill, 1896.
- Address and poem delivered at the unveiling of the monument erected to the memory of the Confederate dead of Warren County, N.C. : 27 August 1903.
- The speech of Hon. Don P. Halsey on the bill to provide a statue of Robert Edward Lee to be placed in Statuary Hall in the Capitol at Washington, D. C., delivered in the Senate of Virginia, 6 February 1903.
- North Carolina Monument Program and Dedication at Appomattox, 10 May 1905.
- A Souvenir Book of the Jefferson Davis Memorial Association and the Unveiling of the Monument, Richmond, Virginia, 3 June 1907.
- Address at the dedication of the Confederate Memorial Hall, Lincolnton, N.C., 27 August 1908.
- The speech of Wiley N. Nash at the dedication of the Confederate monument at Lexington, Mississippi, 2 December 1908.
- Unveiling and dedication of monument to Hood’s Texas brigade on the capitol grounds at Austin, Texas, Thursday, 27 October 1910.
- Lee monument : speech of Hon. Edward W. Pou of North Carolina in the House of Representatives, 13 February 1914.
- Addresses at the unveiling and presentation to the state of the statue of Thomas Ruffin by the North Carolina Bar Association : delivered in the hall of the House of Representatives, 1 February, 1915.
- Dedication of the Louisiana state memorial in the Vicksburg national military park to the honor and glory of Confederate veterans, 1920.
- Program for dedication of memorials to Major-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur, C.S.A., and Brigadier-General James Johnston Pettigrew, C.S.A. : near Winchester, Virginia, September 16-17, 1920, by North Carolina Division, U.C.V., North Carolina Division, U.D.C., and North Carolina Historical Commission, 16-17 September, 1920.
TEACHING CONFEDERATE MEMORY AND ICONOGRAPHY
- Choices Program, “History in Dispute: Charlottesville and Confederate Monuments.”
- James Percoco, “Teaching With Monuments and Memorials,” TeachingHistory.org.
- “Interviewing Monuments,” Heart of the Civil War Heritage Area.
- Chris Lese, “Teaching Civil War Memory,” Common-place, Winter 2014.
- Tanvi Misra, “Confederate Street Names Mapped,” 25 August 2017, City Lab.
Soldiers and Sailors Memorial on the Boston Common
READINGS ON SLAVERY
- Edward Ball, Slaves in the Family (1998).
- Edward E. Baptist, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (2014).
- Daina Ramey Berry, The Price For Their Pound of Flesh: The Value of the Enslaved from Womb to Grave, in the Building of a Nation (2017).
- John W. Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South (1972).
- Stephanie Camp, Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (2004).
- David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: the Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (2006).
- John Hope Franklin, The Militant South, 1800-1861 (1956).
- Eugene Genovese, Roll Jordan, Roll: the World the Slaves Made (1974).
- Thavolia Glymph, Out of the House of Bondage: The Transformation of the Plantation Household (2009).
- Sally Hadden, Slave Patrols: Law and Violence in Virginia and the Carolinas (2001).
- Walther Johnson, River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom (2016).
- Walter Johnson, Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market (1999).
- Sydney Nathans, A Mind to Stay: White Plantation, Black Homeland (2017).
- Dylan C. Penningroth, The Claims of Kinfolk: African American Property and Community in the Nineteenth-Century South (2003).
- Andres Resendez, The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America (2016).
- Adam Rothman, Beyond Freedom’s Reach: A Kidnapping in the Twilight of Slavery (2015).
- Manisha Sinha, The Slave’s Cause: A History of Abolitionism (2016).
READINGS ON THE MEMORY OF SLAVERY
- Ana Lucia Araujo, Shadows of the Slave Past: Memory, Heritage, and Slavery (2014).
- James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, ed., Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory (2006).
- Jennifer L. Eichstedt and Stephen Small, Representations of Slavery: Race and Ideology in Southern Plantation Museums (2002).
- Karen L. Cox, Destination Dixie: Tourism and Southern History (2012).
- Micki McElya, Clinging to Mammy: The Faithful Slave in Twentieth-Century America (2007).
- Tiya Miles, Tales From the Haunted South: Dark Tourism and Memories of Slavery from the Civil War Era (2015).
- Blain Roberts and Ethan J. Kytle, “Looking the Thing in the Face: Slavery, Race, and the Commemorative Landscape in Charleston, South Carolina, 1865-2010,” Journal of Southern History (August 2012).
- Stephanie E. Yuhl, “Hidden in Plain Sight: Centering the Domestic Slave Trade in American Public History,” Journal of Southern History (August 2013).
- Marcus Wood, Blind Memory: Visual Representations of Slavery in England America (2000).
READINGS ON THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION
- Stephen V. Ash, A Massacre in Memphis: The Race Riot That Shook the Nation One Year After the Civil War (2013).
- Ira Berlin, Slaves No More: Three Essays on Emancipation and the Civil War (1992).
- Douglas Blackmon, Slavery By Another Name (2008)
- Charles Dew, Apostles of Disunion: Southern Secession Commissioners and the Causes of the Civil War (2001)
- Gregory P. Downs, After Appomattox: Military Occupation and the Civil War (2015).
- Doug Egerton, The Wars of Reconstruction: The Brief, Violent History of America’s Most Progressive Era (2013).
- Carole Emberton, Beyond Redemption: Race, Violence, & American South after Civil War (2009).
- Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (1988).
- Susan Mary-Grant, “Monuments and Maidens: How the White South (Almost) Came to Terms With Defeat in the American Civil War,” Groniek (2009).
- James K. Hogue, Uncivil War: Five New Orleans Street Battles and the Rise and Fall of Radical Reconstruction (2006).
- Leanna Keith, The Colfax Massacre: The Untold Story of Black Power, White Terror, and the Death of Reconstruction (2008).
- Charles Lane, The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction (2013).
- Leon Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery (1979).
- Stephanie McCurry, Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South (2010).
- James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988).
- Chandra Manning, What This Cruel War Was Over: Soldiers, Slavery, and the Civil War (2008).
- Chandra Manning, Troubled Refuge: Seeking Emancipation and Citizenship During the War (2016).
- Justin Nystrom, New Orleans After the Civil War: Race, Politics, and a New Birth of Freedom (2010).
- Elaine F. Parsons, Ku Klux: The Birth of the Klan During Reconstruction (2016).
- K. Stephen Prince, Stories of the South: Race and Reconstruction of Southern Identity, 1865-1915 (2014).
- Hannah Rosen, Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the Meaning of Race in the Postemancipation South (2009).
- Mark W. Summers, The Ordeal of the Reunion: A New History of Reconstruction (2014).
READINGS ON JIM CROW
- Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, (2011).
- W. Fitzhugh Brundage, The Southern Past: A Clash of Race and Memory (2005).
- James C. Cobb, Away Down South: A History of Southern Identity (2005).
- Glenda Gilmore, Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920 (1996).
- Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (1999).
- Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (1998).
- J. Douglas Smith, Managing White Supremacy: Race, Politics, and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia (2003).
- Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration (2010).
Dedication of the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial (54th Mass. Vol. Infantry), May 1897
READINGS ON MONUMENTS
- Philip Bump, Survey of Confederate Monuments in Union States, The Washington Post, 15 August 2017
- Sarah Beetham, “From Spray Cans to Minivans: Contesting the Legacy of Confederate Soldier Monuments in the Era of ‘Black Lives Matter,’” Public Art Dialogue (2016).
- Melanie L. Buffington, “Stories in Stone: Investigating the Stories Behind the Sculptural Commemoration of the Confederacy,” Visual inquiry (September 2013).
- Thomas J. Brown, The Public Art of Civil War Commemoration (2004).
- James C. Cobb, “Why Wiping Out Monuments to the Confederacy Many Not Be a Path to a More Inclusive Society,” Zocalo, 27 May 2017.
- Erika Doss, Memorial Mania: Public Feeling in America (2010).
- David W. Gobel and Daves Rossell eds., Commemoration in America: Essays on Monuments, Memorials, and Memorialization (2013).
- William B. Lees and Frederick P. Gaske, Recalling Deeds Immortal: Florida Monuments to the Civil War (2014).
- Sanford Levinson, Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies (1998).
- Cynthia Mills and Pamela H. Simpson, Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory (2003).
- Kirk Savage, Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America (1997).
- Kirk Savage, Monument Wars: Washington, D.C. the National Mall, and the Transformation of the Memorial Landscape (2005).
- Dell Upton, What Can and Can’t Be Said: Race, Uplift, and Monument Building in the Contemporary South (2015).
READINGS ON MONUMENTS (INTERNATIONAL)
READINGS ON CIVIL WAR MEMORY
- David Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (2002).
- Thomas J. Brown, Civil War Canon: Sites of Confederate Memory in South Carolina (2015).
- Court Carney, “The Contested Image of Nathan Bedford Forrest,” in The Journal of Southern History (August 2001).
- Robert J. Cook, Troubled Commemoration: The American Civil War Centennial, 1961-1965 (2007).
- Karen L. Cox, Dixie’s Daughters: The United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Preservation of Confederate Culture (2003).
- Gary Gallagher, Causes Won, Lost & Forgotten: How Hollywood And Popular Art Shape What We Know About the Civil War (2008).
- Gary Gallagher, Lee & His Army in Confederate History, (2001)
- Gary Gallagher, Lee and His Generals in War and Memory (1998).
- Barbara Gannon, Americans Remember Their Civil War (2017).
- Barbara Gannon, The Won Cause: Black and White Comradeship in the Grand Army of the Republic (2014).
- David Goldfield, Still Fighting the Civil War: The American South and Southern History (2002).
- Susan-Mary Grant and Peter J. Parish eds., Legacy of Disunion: The Enduring Significance of the American Civil War (2003)
- M. Keith Harris, Across the Bloody Chasm: The Culture of Commemoration Among Civil War Veterans (2014).
- Tony Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War (1998).
- Matthew C. Hulbert, The Ghosts of Guerilla Memory: How Civil War Bushwhackers Became Gunslingers in the American West (2016).
- Caroline E. Janney, Burying the Dead But Not the Past: Ladies’ Memorial Associations and the Lost Cause (2012).
- Caroline E. Janney, Remembering the Civil War: Reunion and the Limits of Reconciliation (2013).
- Lawrence A. Kreiser Jr. and Randall Allred eds., The Civil War in Popular Culture: Memory and Meaning (2014).
- Kevin M. Levin, Remembering the Battle of the Crater: War as Murder (2012).
- Anne Marshall, Creating a Confederate Kentucky: The Lost Cause and Civil War Memory in a Border State (2010).
- W. Scott Poole, Never Surrender: Confederate Memory and Conservatism in the South Carolina Upcountry (2004).
- Paul A. Shackel, Memory in Black and White: Race, Commemoration, and the Post-Bellum Landscape (2003).
- Nina Silber, The Romance of Reunion: Northerners and the South, 1865-1900 (1993).
READINGS ON THE MYTH OF THE LOST CAUSE
READINGS ON THE CONFEDERATE FLAG