A Crowdsourcing Project About New Orleans, Confederate Monuments, and Civil War Memory
In December 2015 the New Orleans City Council voted 6-1 in favor of removing four monuments commemorating Confederate leaders Robert E. Lee, P.G.T. Beauregard, Jefferson Davis, and the Battle of Liberty Place in 1874. With this vote the city joined communities throughout the South – following the brutal murders of nine churchgoers in Charleston, South Carolina – in questioning the place of Confederate flags, monuments, and other iconography in public spaces. The completion of this removal process in New Orleans on May 19, 2017 represents the most dramatic transformation of a major city’s Civil War commemorative landscape to date.
The goal of #NOLASyllabus is to assist teachers, students, and others interested in better understanding the evolving meaning of Confederate monuments and the Civil War in New Orleans and throughout the nation.
- Felicia Bevel, “White Supremacy is a Global Export of the Confederate South, 32 May 2017, Quartz.
- Frank Bruni, “Mitch Landrieu Reminds Us that Eloquence Still Exists,” 23 May 2017, The New York Times.
- Ta-Nehisi Coates, “Why Do So Few Blacks Study the Civil War?” 2012, The Atlantic.
- Brentin Mock, “How Robert E. Lee Got Knocked Off His Pedestal,” 31 May 2017, The Atlantic (City Lab).
- David W. Blight, “The Battle For Memorial Day in New Orleans,” 31 May 2017, The Atlantic.
- Jelani Cobb, “The Battle Over Confederate Monuments in New Orleans,” 12 May 2017, The New Yorker.
- Kevin M. Levin, “Robert E. Lee Topples From His Pedestal,” 19 May 2017, The Atlantic.
- Wynton Marsalis, “Why New Orleans Should Take Down Robert E. Lee’s Statue,” 17 May 2017, The Times-Picayune.
- Collier Meyerson, “Inside the Fight to Take Down the Confederate Monuments in New Orleans,” 19 June 2017, The Nation.
- Mary Niall Mitchell, “A Tale of Two Cities: New Orleans and the Fight Over Confederate Monuments,” 11 May 2017, History.
- Janell Ross, “‘They Were Not Patriots’: New Orleans Removes Monument to Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee,” 19 May 2017, The Washington Post.
- Aviva Shen, “The History Behind New Orleans’ Long Fight To Remove Its Confederate Monuments,” 13 March 2017, Think Progress.
- Yohuru Williams, “Bye Bye Beauregard: Putting the Confederate Past Where it Belongs,” 23 May 2017, The Progressive.
NEW ORLEANS: LOCAL VOICES
- Edward Alexander, “Thought You Were God, Huh? Letter to Robert E. Lee,” uploaded to YouTube, 5 June 2017.
- Lolis Eric Elie, “Still Live, With Voices,” 20 August 2015, Oxford American.
- David S. Rutledge, Where We Know: New Orleans As Home (2010).
- Debate Between Michael “Quess” Moore and Richard Marksbury about Confederate Monuments, uploaded to YouTube, 9 June 2017.
READINGS ON NEW ORLEANS: KATRINA, RACIAL UNREST, AND CRISIS
READINGS ON NEW ORLEANS/LOUISIANA
- Eric Arnesen, Waterfront Workers of New Orleans: Race, Class, and Politics, 1863-1923 (2005).
- Thomas Adams and Steve Striffler, ed. Working in the Big Easy: The History of Labor and Politics in New Orleans (2014).
- Bruce Baker and Barbara Hahn, The Cotton Kings: Capitalism and Corruption in Turn-of-the-Century New York and New Orleans (2016).
- Eli N. Evans, Judah P. Benjamin: The Jewish Confederate (1988).
- Kevin Fox Gotham, Authentic New Orleans: Tourism, Culture, and Race in the Big Easy (2007).
- James K. Hogue, Uncivil War: Five New Orleans Street Battles and the Rise and Fall of Radical Reconstruction (2006).
- Leanna Keith, The Colfax Massacre: The Untold Story of Black Power, White Terror, and the Death of Reconstruction (2008).
- Ari Kelman, A River and its City: An Environmental History of New Orleans (2003).
- Charles Lane, The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction (2013).
- Alecia P. Long, The Great Southern Babylon: Sex, Race, and Respectability in New Orleans, 1865-1920 (2005).
- Mary Gorton McBride, Randall Lee Gibson of Louisiana: Confederate General and New South Reformer (2007).
- Reid Mitchell, All on Mardi Gras Day: Episodes in the History of the New Orleans Carnivals (1999).
- Justin Nystrom, New Orleans After the Civil War: Race, Politics, and a New Birth of Freedom (2010).
- K. Stephen Prince, “Remembering Robert Charles: Violence and Memory in Jim Crow New Orleans,” Journal of Southern History (May 2017).
- Michael A. Ross, The Great New Orleans Kidnapping Case: Race, Law, and Justice in the Reconstruction Era (2015).
- Michael A. Ross, “The Commemoration of Robert E. Lee’s Death and the Obstruction of Reconstruction in New Orleans,” Civil War History (2005).
- Podcast: “An Absolute Massacre: The 1866 Riot at the Mechanics’ Institute,” New Orleans Public Radio (2016).
- Podcast: “Oscar Dunn and the New Orleans Monument that Never Happened,” New Orleans Public Radio (2017).
- Anthony Stanonis, Creating the Big Easy: New Orleans and the Emergence of Modern Tourism, 1918-1945 (2006).
- Ted Tunnell, The Edge of the Sword: The Ordeal of Carpetbagger Marshall H. Twitchell in the Civil War and Reconstruction (2001).
READINGS ON SLAVERY
- John Hope Franklin, The Militant South, 1800-1861 (1956)
- Edward E. Baptist, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (2014)
- John W. Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South (1972)
- Eugene Genovese, Roll Jordan, Roll: the World the Slaves Made (1974)
- Edward Ball, Slaves in the Family (1998)
- Walther Johnson, River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom (2016).
- Walter Johnson, Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market (1999)
- Sally Hadden, Slave Patrols: Law and Violence in Virginia and the Carolinas (2001)
- Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century (2002)
- Dylan C. Penningroth, The Claims of Kinfolk: African American Property and Community in the Nineteenth-Century South (2003)
- Stephanie Camp, Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (2004)
- David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: the Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (2006)
- Thavolia Glymph, Out of the House of Bondage: The Transformation of the Plantation Household (2009)
- Adam Rothman, Beyond Freedom’s Reach: A Kidnapping in the Twilight of Slavery (2015)
READINGS ON THE MEMORY OF SLAVERY
- James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, ed., Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory (2006).
- Jennifer L. Eichstedt and Stephen Small, Representations of Slavery: Race and Ideology in Southern Plantation Museums (2002).
- Karen L. Cox, Destination Dixie: Tourism and Southern History (2012).
- Micki McElya, Clinging to Mammy: The Faithful Slave in Twentieth-Century America (2007).
- Tiya Miles, Tales From the Haunted South: Dark Tourism and Memories of Slavery from the Civil War Era (2015).
- Blain Roberts and Ethan J. Kytle, “Looking the Thing in the Face: Slavery, Race, and the Commemorative Landscape in Charleston, South Carolina, 1865-2010,” Journal of Southern History (August 2012).
- Stephanie E. Yuhl, “Hidden in Plain Sight: Centering the Domestic Slave Trade in American Public History,” Journal of Southern History (August 2013).
READINGS ON THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION
- Stephen V. Ash, A Massacre in Memphis: The Race Riot That Shook the Nation One Year After the Civil War (2013).
- Gregory P. Downs, After Appomattox: Military Occupation and the Civil War (2015).
- Susan Mary-Grant, “Monuments and Maidens: How the White South (Almost) Came to Terms With Defeat in the American Civil War,” Groniek (2009).
- Leon Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery (1979)
- James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988)
- Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (1988)
- Ira Berlin, Slaves No More: Three Essays on Emancipation and the Civil War (1992)
- Charles Dew, Apostles of Disunion: Southern Secession Commissioners and the Causes of the Civil War (2001)
- Douglas Blackmon, Slavery By Another Name (2008)
- Carole Emberton, Beyond Redemption: Race, Violence, & American South after Civil War (2009)
- Stephanie McCurry, Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South (2010)
- Doug Egerton, The Wars of Reconstruction: The Brief, Violent History of America’s Most Progressive Era (2013).
- Chandra Manning, What This Cruel War Was Over: Soldiers, Slavery, and the Civil War (2008).
- Chandra Manning, Troubled Refuge: Seeking Emancipation and Citizenship During the War (2016).
- Elaine F. Parsons, Ku Klux: The Birth of the Klan During Reconstruction (2016).
- K. Stephen Prince, Stories of the South: Race and Reconstruction of Southern Identity, 1865-1915 (2014).
- Hannah Rosen, Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the Meaning of Race in the Postemancipation South (2009).
- Mark W. Summers, The Ordeal of the Reunion: A New History of Reconstruction (2014).
READINGS ON JIM CROW
- Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, (2011).
- W. Fitzhugh Brundage, The Southern Past: A Clash of Race and Memory (2005).
- James C. Cobb, Away Down South: A History of Southern Identity (2005).
- Glenda Gilmore, Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920 (1996).
- Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (1999).
- Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (1998).
- J. Douglas Smith, Managing White Supremacy: Race, Politics, and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia (2003).
- Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration (2010).
ACROSS THE COUNTRY
- Sophie Abramowitz, Eva Latterner, and Gillet Rosenblith, “Tools of Displacement,” 23 June 2017, Slate.
- Eileen Johnson, “Moments of Rupture: Confederate Monuments and a Southern Town’s Search for its Identity,” 12 April 2017, The Politic. (Charlottesville, Va).
- Jamelle Bouie, “Why Richard Spencer Matters,” 23 May 2017, Slate. (Charlottesville, Va).
- “City of Charlottesville Blue Ribbon Commission on Race, Memorials and Public Spaces,” Report to City Council, 19 December 2016.
- Bob Deans, “Richmond Straddles a Grand Dilemma Called Monument Avenue,” 11 June 2017, Richmond Times-Dispatch.
- Heather B. Doyle, “‘Cathedral of the Confederacy’ Reckons With Its History and Charts Future,” 19 June 2017, Episcopal News Service.
- Garrett Epps, “The True History of the South Is Not Being Erased,” 11 June 2017, The Atlantic.
- Garrett Epps, “The Motionless Ghosts That Haunt the South,” 14 May 2017, The Atlantic.
- Kevin M. Levin, “What Richmond Has Gotten Right About Its Confederate History,” 18 May 2017, Smithsonian Magazine.
- Howard Manly, “Uncovering the Buried Truth in Richmond: Former Confederate Capital Tries to Memorialize Its Shameful History of Slavery,” Trotter Review (2016).
- Community Forum: “The Unmasking: Race and Reality in Richmond, Part 2,” Uploaded to YouTube on 17 January 2017.
- Mayor Levar M. Stoney’s statement on Confederate monuments in Richmond, June 22, 2017.
- Robert Zullo, “As Confederate Monuments Come Down Elsewhere, Can Richmond ‘Offer Something Else,'” 21 May 2017, Richmond Times-Dispatch.
St. Louis, MO
READINGS ON MONUMENTS (Civil War)
- Sarah Beetham, “From Spray Cans to Minivans: Contesting the Legacy of Confederate Soldier Monuments in the Era of ‘Black Lives Matter,’” Public Art Dialogue (2016).
- Melanie L. Buffington, “Stories in Stone: Investigating the Stories Behind the Sculptural Commemoration of the Confederacy,” Visual inquiry (September 2013).
- Thomas J. Brown, The Public Art of Civil War Commemoration (2004).
- James C. Cobb, “Why Wiping Out Monuments to the Confederacy Many Not Be a Path to a More Inclusive Society,” Zocalo, 27 May 2017.
- Erika Doss, Memorial Mania: Public Feeling in America (2010).
- William B. Lees and Frederick P. Gaske, Recalling Deeds Immortal: Florida Monuments to the Civil War (2014).
- Sanford Levinson, Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies (1998).
- Cynthia Mills and Pamela H. Simpson, Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory (2003).
- Kirk Savage, Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America (1997).
READINGS ON MONUMENTS (INTERNATIONAL)
READINGS ON CIVIL WAR MEMORY
- David Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (2002).
- Thomas J. Brown, Civil War Canon: Sites of Confederate Memory in South Carolina (2015).
- Robert J. Cook, Troubled Commemoration: The American Civil War Centennial, 1961-1965 (2007).
- Karen L. Cox, Dixie’s Daughters: The United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Preservation of Confederate Culture (2003).
- Gary W. Gallagher, Causes Won, Lost & Forgotten: How Hollywood And Popular Art Shape What We Know About the Civil War (2008).
- David Goldfield, Still Fighting the Civil War: The American South and Southern History (2002).
- Tony Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War (1998)
- Caroline E. Janney, Remembering the Civil War: Reunion and the Limits of Reconciliation (2013).
- Kevin M. Levin, Remembering the Battle of the Crater: War as Murder (2012).
- Anne Marshall, Creating a Confederate Kentucky: The Lost Cause and Civil War Memory in a Border State (2010).
- Nina Silber, The Romance of Reunion: Northerners and the South, 1865-1900 (1993).
READINGS ON THE MYTH OF THE LOST CAUSE
READINGS ON THE CONFEDERATE FLAG
OP-EDS AND EDITORIALS ON THE CONFEDERATE FLAG
- Yoni Applebaum, “Why Is the Flag Still There?,” 21 June 2015, The Atlantic.
- Ta-Nehisi Coates, “Take Down the Confederate Flag–Now,” 18 June 2015, The Atlantic.
- Libby Nelson, “The Confederate Flag Symbolizes White Supremacy –and it Always Has,” 20 June 2015, Vox.
- Ethan Kytle and Blain Roberts, “Take Down the Confederate Flag, but Not the Monuments,” 25 June 2015, The Atlantic.
LECTURES AND PANEL DISCUSSIONS
- Thomas Brown, “Overview of Civil War Monuments,” American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- Christy Coleman, “Controversy Over Civil War Monuments and Memorials,” American Civil War Museum,” 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- Troy Harman, “Monuments at Gettysburg: Context and Beyond,” Gettysburg National Military Park, Winter 2015, YouTube.
- John Hennessy, “Freedom, the Civil War and its Complicated Legacy,” Gettysburg National Military Park, Spring 2016, YouTube.
- Ervin Jordan, “Controversy Over Robert E. Lee Monuments,” American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- James Loewen, “Confederate Monuments and Memorials,” American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- Cynthia Mills, “Civil War Monuments,” Smithsonian Institution, 19 July 2012, YouTube.
- Panel Discussion: “Confederate Flag, Slavery, and Modern Racism,” National Cathedral, Washington, D.C., 26 October 2016, C-SPAN.
- Panel Discussion: “Origins of the Lost Cause,” Civil War Institute at Gettysburg College, 18 June 2016, C-SPAN.
- Panel Discussion on New Orleans and Confederate Monuments, Al Jazeera, 24 May 2017, YouTube.
- Panel Discussion on Civil War Monuments, American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
- Panel Discussion: “Charleston and its Aftermath: History, Symbols, Policy,” Yale University, 21 September 2015. YouTube.
- Panel Discussion: “The American Civil War: Legacies For Our Own Time,” Yale University, 29 March 2012.
- Timothy Sedore, “Context of Civil War Monuments,” American Civil War Museum, 25 February 2017, C-SPAN.
SHORT EDUCATIONAL VIDEOS
- Civil War Trust, “The Civil War in Four Minutes: Remembering the War,” Uploaded to YouTube on 20 August 2013.
- Civil War Trust, “The Civil War in Four Minutes: Monuments,” Uploaded to YouTube on 7 June 2013.
- Florida Humanities, “Florida in the Civil War: Monuments and Memories,” Uploaded to YouTube on 7 November 2016.
- Gilder-Lehrman, “Gary Gallagher on the ‘Lost Cause,'” Uploaded to YouTube on 17 April 2009.
- Matter of Fact, Interview with Garrett Epps about Confederate Monuments in Richmond, Uploaded to YouTube on 3 June 2017.
- Prager University, “Was the Civil War About Slavery,” Uploaded to YouTube on 10 August 2015.
- Alexander Stephens, “Corner stone” Speech, March 21, 1861
- Constitution of the Confederate States
- Declaration of Causes of Seceded States
- Frederick Douglass, Speech at Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, 30 May 1871.
- W.E.B. DuBois, “The Perfect Vacation,” The Crisis (1931).
- W.E.B. DuBois, “Robert E. Lee,” (1928).
- James Loewen and Edward H. Sebesta, The Confederate and Neo-Confederate Reader: The “Great Truth” about the “Lost Cause” (2010).
- George Washington Cable, The Negro Question (1903).
- Emily Hazen Reed, The Life of A.P. Dostie; Or, the Conflict of New Orleans (1868).
TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION
MONUMENT DEDICATION ADDRESSES
- Ceremonies in Augusta, Georgia: laying the corner stone of the Confederate monument and Dedication Address, 31 October 1878.
- South Carolina Monument Association/Dedication of Monument to Confederate Dead, 13 May 1879.
- Robert Edward Lee. An address delivered at the dedication of the monument to General Robert Edward Lee at Richmond, Virginia, May 29, 1890.
- Report of proceedings incidental to the erection and dedication of the Confederate monument, Oakwood Cemetery, Chicago, 1 June 1895.
- Address and poem delivered at the unveiling of the monument erected to the memory of the Confederate dead of Warren County, N.C. : 27 August 1903.
- The speech of Hon. Don P. Halsey on the bill to provide a statue of Robert Edward Lee to be placed in Statuary Hall in the Capitol at Washington, D. C., delivered in the Senate of Virginia, 6 February 1903.
- North Carolina Monument Program and Dedication at Appomattox, 10 May 1905.
- A Souvenir Book of the Jefferson Davis Memorial Association and the Unveiling of the Monument, Richmond, Virginia, June 3, 1907.
- Lee monument : speech of Hon. Edward W. Pou of North Carolina in the House of Representatives, 13 February 1914.